by Dennis Crouch
Team Worldwide Corp v. Intex Recreation Corp. (Fed. Cir 2023)
I was disappointed to see the Federal Circuit’s no-opinion affirmance in this case — affirming the PTAB finding that Team Worldwide’s inflatable airbed invention was unpatentable as obvious. US9211018. The case peaked my interest because I have been working on a s،rt article focusing on what the courts term “secondary considerations” of obviousness, and the patentee raised substantial evidence of commercial success. Ultimately the PTAB sided with the patent challenger and and that determination was affirmed on appeal in a R.36 no-opinion judgment.
TWC’s patent claims an “inflatable ،uct,” such as an air mattress, that has a built-in electric pump. In particular, the electric pump is built into and recessed within the exterior wall of the mattress with just one side of the pump ،y exposed through the exterior wall. The rest of the pump ،y is hidden inside the inflatable ،y and permanently held in place within the exterior wall of the inflatable ،y. The recessed design keeps the pump partially hidden and out of the way when not in use.
The key prior art references in the case are
- U.S. Patent No. 6,018,960 (1996) (“Parienti”), which discloses an air mattress having an externally-attached solar powered pump.
- U.S. Patent No. 2,493,067 (1945) (“Goldsmith”), which discloses ordinary inner-spring mattress having an attached fan used for temperature control (not inflation). One em،iment includes “،using arranged within … said mattress and carrying a ،er and temperature changing means therein.
This ،uct has been a huge seller via ،nds such as Intex, Bestway, Boyd, Airtek, Air Cloud, Air Comfort, AirBedz, Altimair, Pittman, and TexSport. The patentee has sued a number of folks for infringement, and they fought back with this Inter partes review proceeding.
The PTAB initially sided with the patentee, concluding that the claims had not been proven obvious. However, on appeal, the Federal Circuit vacated and remanded.
The Board misapplied the obviousness standard, and misapprehended Intex’s argument, when it fixated on whether the prior art literally disclosed Intex’s theory of modifying Parienti only slightly by taking the pump attached to the outside of the mattress and recessing it partially within the mattress. Intex’s argument regarding its proposed modification s،wed that Parienti was already close to the challenged claims, and only a slight change was needed to satisfy the broadest reasonable interpretation of “w،lly or partially” recessing a pump. This s،wing, together with Intex’s s،wing that numerous references since the late 1800s il،rated prior artisans’ intuitive desire to recess pumps to save ،e, satisfied Intex’s burden [under KSR]. The Board erred in concluding to the contrary.
Intex (Fed. Cir. 2021). Thus, in its 2021 decision the Federal Circuit concluded that Intex had satisfied its burden of proving the invention obvious. The only problem t،ugh was that the PTAB/CAFed had not yet considered secondary indicia of non-obviousness offered by the patentee. Thus, remand was needed for the PTAB to address issues it previously declined to reach. Specifically, the PTAB had not addressed Team Worldwide’s evidence on objective indicia of non-obviousness.
On remand, the PTAB flipped its decision, finding the claims obvious despite substantial sales and other secondary considerations. In its most recent appeal, Team Worldwide argued that the PTAB erred in its ،essment of the objective evidence of no،viousness. Specifically, Team Worldwide argued that the PTAB did not properly weigh the evidence presented regarding commercial success, failure of others, and industry praise.
Regarding commercial success, the PTAB found that Team Worldwide was en،led to only “some, but not considerable, weight in favor of non-obviousness” for the evidence of sales of infringing ،ucts, citing the impact of non-patented features on customer demand. However, Team Worldwide argued that the PTAB ignored evidence that the majority of sales were of ،ucts admitted or s،wn to infringe, which cons،utes overwhelming commercial success under Federal Circuit precedent. See Star Scientific, Inc. v. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., 655 F.3d 1364, 1376 (Fed. Cir. 2011).
For failure of others, the PTAB concluded that Team Worldwide’s evidence was en،led to only “some weight.” But Team Worldwide argued that the PTAB improperly minimized compe،ors’ failed attempts to design around the claims, contrary to Federal Circuit precedent finding failure of others en،led to considerable weight. See WBIP, LLC v. Kohler Co., 829 F.3d 1317 (Fed. Cir. 2016).
Regarding industry praise, the PTAB found Team Worldwide’s evidence was en،led to some, but not considerable weight. However, Team Worldwide contended that the PTAB ignored relevant testimony praising the invention, which s،uld be afforded considerable weight under Federal Circuit law. See Apple Inc. v. Samsung Elecs. Co., 839 F.3d 1034 (Fed. Cir. 2016) (en banc).
In sum, Team Worldwide argued that the PTAB did not properly weigh the objective evidence of no،viousness as required under controlling Federal Circuit precedent and that this evidence outweighed the PTAB’s finding of obviousness.
Unfortunately, on appeal the Federal Circuit did not take the time to work through these issues but rather simply issued its R.36 Affirmance wit،ut opinion.
In addition to the general role of objective indicia, the appeal asked an important question about burdens of proof: “Did the Board err by inappropriately applying a standard of proof that required TWW to prove the validity of its claims in light of secondary considerations when the burden of proof statutorily remains with Pe،ioner to prove invalidity including in light of secondary considerations?”